The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world

(Vietkings) While thousands of climbers have successfully scaled Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth, only two people have descended to the planet’s deepest point, the Challenger Deep in the Pacific Ocean’s Mariana Trench.

source: deepseachallenge

Located in the western Pacific east of the Philippines and an average of approximately 124 miles (200 kilometers) east of the Mariana Islands, the Mariana Trench is a crescent-shaped scar in the Earth’s crust that measures more than 1,500 miles (2,550 kilometers) long and 43 miles (69 kilometers) wide on average. The distance between the surface of the ocean and the trench’s deepest point—the Challenger Deep, which lies about 200 miles (322 kilometers) southwest of the U.S. territory of Guam—is nearly 7 miles (11 kilometers). If Mount Everest were dropped into the Mariana Trench, its peak would still be more than a mile (1.6 kilometers) underwater.

The Mariana Trench is part of a global network of deep troughs that cut across the ocean floor. They form when two techtonic plates collide. At the collision point, one of the plates dives beneath the other into the Earth’s mantle, creating an ocean trench.

The depths of the Mariana Trench were first plumbed in 1875 by the British ship H.M.S. Challenger as part of the first global oceanographic cruise. The Challenger scientists recorded a depth of 4,475 fathoms (about five miles, or eight kilometers) using a weighted sounding rope. In 1951, the British vessel H.M.S. Challenger II returned to the spot with an echo-sounder and measured a depth of nearly 7 miles (11 kilometers).

The majority of the Mariana Trench is now a U.S. protected zone as part of the Mariana Trench National Monument, established by President George W. Bush in 2009. Permits for research in the monument, including in the Sirena Deep, have been secured from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Permits for research in the Challenger Deep have been secured from the Federated States of Micronesia.

HISTORIC DIVE

Because of its extreme depth, the Mariana Trench is cloaked in perpetual darkness and the temperature is just a few degrees above freezing. The water pressure at the bottom of the trench is a crushing eight tons per square inch—or about a thousand times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. Pressure increases with depth.

The first and only time humans descended into the Challenger Deep was more than 50 years ago. In 1960, Jacques Picard and Don Walsh reached this goal in a U.S. Navy submersible, a bathyscaphe called the Trieste. After a five-hour descent, the pair spent only a scant 20 minutes at the bottom and were unable to take any photographs due to clouds of silt stirred up by their passage.

Until Piccard and Walsh’s historic dive, scientists had debated whether life could exist under such extreme pressure. But at the bottom, the Trieste‘s floodlight illuminated a creature that Piccard thought was a flatfish, a moment that Piccard would later describe with excitement in a book about his journey.

“Here, in an instant, was the answer that biologists had asked for the decades,” Piccard wrote. “Could life exist in the greatest depths of the ocean? It could!”

WAITING IN THE DEEP

While the Trieste expedition laid to rest any doubts that life could exist in the Mariana Trench, scientists still know very little about the types of organisms that reside there. In fact, some question whether Piccard’s fish was actually a form of sea cucumber. It is thought that the pressure is so great that calcium can’t exist except in solution, so the bones of vertebrates would literally dissolve. No bones, no fish. But nature has also proven scientists wrong many times in the past with its remarkable capacity for adaptation. So are there fish that deep? Nobody knows, and this is the whole point of the DEEPSEA CHALLENGE project, to find answers to such fundamental questions.

In recent years, deep-ocean dredges and unmanned subs have glimpsed exotic organisms such as shrimp-like amphipods, and strange, translucent animals called holothurians. But scientists say there are many new species awaiting discovery and many unanswered questions about how animals can survive in these extreme conditions. Scientists are particularly interested in microorganisms living in the trenches, which they say could lead to breakthroughs in biomedicine and biotechnology.

The Mariana Trench’s microscopic inhabitants might even shed light on the emergence of life on Earth. Some researchers, such as Patricia Fryer et alat University of Hawaii, have speculated that serpentine mud volcanoes located near ocean trenches might have provided the right conditions for our planet’s first life-forms. Additionally, studying rocks from ocean trenches could lead to a better understanding of the earthquakes that create the powerful and devastating tsunamis seen around the Pacific Rim, geologists say.

Source: deepseachallenge

VIETNAM BOOK OF RECORDS- VIETKINGS

The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No.20: Czech Republic- the Sedlec Ossuary
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) The Sedlec Ossuary is a small Roman Catholic Chapel, located beneath the Cemetery Church of All Saints in Sedlec, a suburb of Kutna Hora in the Czech Republic.
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.20: Thomas- The oldest tortoise in the World
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) Born when Gladstone was Prime Minister, Thomas the tortoise has survived everything since 1882, even Nazi bombs.  
The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No.19: Cuba- the Cathedral of La Habana
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) Renowned for its beauty, the 18th-century Havana Cathedral (Catedral de la Habana) has been called "music cast into stone."
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.19: Cherrapunji- the wettest spot on earth
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) The city of Cherrapunji is 1,290 meters above sea level and much of the torrential rains run off the mountains into the valley below, which receives an annual rainfall of 1,270 centimeters. Once it rained 2,290 centimeters in one season!
The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No.18: Colombia- the Teatro de Cristobal Colon
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The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) Atacama Desert is the driest spot on earth with an average of less than .004 inches/.01cm of rain per year.
The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No.17: China- the Great Wall
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) Perhaps the most recognizable symbol of China and its long and vivid history, the Great Wall of China actually consists of numerous walls and fortifications, many running parallel to each other.
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.17: Antarctica- the coldest region in the world
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietking) Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.16: Rafflesia Anoldi- the largest flower in the world
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) A rare, parasitic, rootless and leafless plant, Rafflesia arnoldii has the largest known flower in the world.
The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No.16: the Moai Statue, Easter Island- Chile
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) Easter Island is known by the local people as Rapa Nui. In Spanish the island is called Isla de Pascua.
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.15: Black Marlin- the fastest swimming fish
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world ( Vietkings )The Black Marlin is found in the tropical Indo-Pacific oceans and an extraordinary trophy for any angler.
The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No.15: Canada- CN Tower
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) The CN Tower  is a 553.33 m-high (1,815.4 ft) concrete communications and observation tower in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Journey to Promote the National Symbols in the World No 14: Angkor Wat- Cambodia
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Vietkings) Angkor Wat was once customary to maintain a state temple at the heart of the capital city of Khmer Empire
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The suggestion of Record: the largest model of airplane made from flowers
The Journey to Promote the Immutable Records in the World No.21: Mariana Trench- the lowest point in the world (Kyluc.vn) Jetstar Pacific is the low-price airline that came into business in Vietnam since 2008.
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